Boxing is valued as one of the world’s most popular sporting events, with fights attracting millions of viewers from all around the world. Over the many years, boxing has produced stars such as Muhammad Ali, Chris Eubank, Anthony Joshua, Mike Tyson and Lennox Lewis, and boxing has become an international sport with three world-acclaimed boxing organisations.
The History of Boxers
The first boxing match hosted in Britain was now over three centuries ago in 1681. At first, there were no written rules to the game. In fact, the first set of rules weren’t introduced for another 60 years in 1743. Then, champion Jack Broughton introduced rules to help protect fighters in the ring. Deaths sometimes occurred in the ring where rules were not provided, therefore, rules had to be introduced. The rules stated that if a fighter went down and could not continue following a 30 second count, the fight would be over and the other fighter crowned winner.
More up-to-date developments were not introduced until 1866, where a more recognisable set of rules were established – the Marquees of Queensberry consented to a new set of rules which saw the introduction of the limited 3-minute round rule, for instance, while boxing gloves became compulsory.
Invented in 1902, the mouth guard which proved to be a very important piece of protection for boxers, however it was not introduced into the ring until 1913 and was first used in the ring by Ted ‘Kid’ Lewis. It soon gained acclaim in the sport of boxing as a protective accessory to the sport.
There were no standard weight restrictions in boxing throughout the early 19th century as weight classes were first introduced in 1910 and were labelled Flyweight, Bantamweight, Featherweight, Lightweight, Welterweight, Middleweight, Light Heavyweight and Heavyweight. There was originally eight, however, there are now technically 17 weight classes within boxing. Some of these have been changed over time, with the most recent weight class introduction in 2007 – the light minimumweight (102lb).
Throughout the early 20th century, it was highly likely that boxing fights could last for an unlimited number of rounds, only ending when a fighter quit, was knocked out or the fight was stopped by the police. In the 1910s and 1920s, a 15-round limit was introduced and became the norm amongst most boxing matches. The now current, 12-round limit on championship fights was introduced in 1983 following the death of boxer Duk Koo Kim in a fight against Ray Mancini. The boxer died in the 14th round, which led to the rule change. Each round lasts three minutes, meaning for televised boxing fights, the fight can be broadcast within an hour.
Often in a boxing match, there was a chance that a knockout or disqualification didn’t occur throughout the duration. It was then that the winner was determined by the referee, who would hold up the arm of the deserved title winner. In the early 20th century, it was common for a referee or judge to score each round and the winner could be determined based on their score or ‘points’. This was then changed to two ringside judges to improve reliability, and by the late 20th century and still up until the present day, three judges were to be sat at ringside and score round by round. The referee still holds the power to stop the fight or deduct points though.
Rules and Regulations
To ensure that fights are kept both safe and fair, boxing opponents are now chosen within the same weight category. When in training for an upcoming fight, the boxer’s aim is to get down to the fighting weight for the official weigh in — the weigh in generally takes place the day before the fight.
There are 17 professional major weight classes, which are as follows:
- Heavyweight (over 200lb)
- Cruiserweight (200lb)
- Light heavyweight (175lb)
- Super middleweight (168lb)
- Middleweight (160lb)
- Light middleweight (154lb)
- Welterweight (147lb)
- Light welterweight (140lb)
- Lightweight (135lb)
- Super featherweight (130lb)
- Featherweight (126lb)
- Super bantamweight (122lb)
- Bantamweight (188lb)
- Super flyweight (115lb)
- Flyweight (112lb)
- Light flyweight (108lb)
- Strawweight (105lb)
Diet & Nutrition
To ensure that the boxer has the best chance of winning, they follow strict diets and nutritional guides. Training and nutrition is vital for boxers whilst preparing for a fight. The diet of a boxer is a crucial part of staying in shape and keeping up with the demands of training. A diet comprising of the three main macronutrients, carbohydrates, lean protein and good fats, put you in the best position for optimum workout performance and help you reach your target weight. Pure protein is key, as is plenty of liquids. Most boxers aim to stay within 3-5% of their target weigh-in weight whilst training to avoid the need of a crash diet, which could affect their performance.
A recent survey conducted by TalkBoxing, discovered that a boxer’s diet should contain 45-55% carbohydrates, 30-40% protein and 15% of fats. Boxers require carbohydrates because the sport is an anaerobic activity which requires the maintenance of high energy levels for 12 intensive three-minute rounds. Carbohydrates slowly release energy, replacing used up glycogen stores. Meanwhile, protein is needed in a boxer’s diet to help maximise recovery and contribute to muscle growth, whilst certain fats are required for the upkeep of internal bodily functions. These are generally called ‘good fats’ or ‘essential fats’ – think Omega-3 and Omega-6.
Protein shakes and energy bars have become a very popular choice of workout aids for some boxers as they provide them with all the necessary supplements.
A High Risked Sport
Boxing can be a very dangerous sport and there is evidently a lot of skill needed behind a good boxer. Endless hours are put in at the gym and into ring training, as well as the dedication to a strict diet to keep to a specific weight. But what about the many risks involved? Boxing is also known for the risk of serious injuries – at the end of the day, the point of the sport is to fight with an opponent. Serious injuries associated with boxing are concussion, fractured skulls, eye injuries, brain injuries, shoulder dislocations and sprains (not only in the hands and wrists).
A study that was conducted between 2013 and 2015 has found that the concussion rate for National Boxers was a very high 61%. Active competitors were recruited to take part in this study. On average, the results showed that boxers suffered 7.59 injuries per year during both training and competitive fights – with head and facial injuries the most frequent. Lip laceration was the most common injury, with 81.48% of boxers suffering this injury. 61% of participants suffered a concussive injury across the two-year period.
Boxing’s Most Iconic
The most common debate to date is still arguing ‘Power Vs. Speed’ – which technique has proven to be the most successful? Generally speaking, most boxers are better at one technique than the other but the aim it to strive to combine the two to beat their opponent.
It is said that speed is usually the preferred technique for boxers, as boxers with speed have been seen to land more punches on their opponent – accuracy, of course, is still key but faster punches often increase the chances of knockout. However, boxers with power sometimes only need that one accurate punch and the knockout soon follows. The most famous example being Floyd Mayweather who is known for his speed. Mayweather is currently undefeated in his professional boxing career, winning 15 world titles, and is a five-division champion. Meanwhile, Manny Pacquiao is considered as one of the world’s fastest boxers by many. Out of a total of 68 fights, Pacquiao has won 59 of them, and he is the only eight-division world champion in the history of boxing.
Muhammad Ali is still regarded as being the best boxer the world has ever encountered. Often referred to as one of the most significant sportsman of the 20th century, his professional career began at a young age, winning gold as a light heavyweight at the age of just 18, at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. In 1964, he won the heavyweight title. Following several years out of the boxing spotlight having had his boxing licence denied in every state, Ali made his comeback in 1974 where he reclaimed the heavyweight title after defeating George Foreman.